Models, Methods and Artifacts useful in project management.

PM Handbook by Repsona
Models, Methods and Artifacts useful in project management.

[What is Tailoring to Adapt the Methodology to the Project?](What is Tailoring to Adapt the Methodology to the Project?), was to create a process or working environment that suited the nature of the project. It was found that it is important to adjust procedures and deliverables according to the size and severity of the project.

The PM Handbook concludes with a model that is useful for project management. Methods. The deliverables are presented here. Not all of these are presented here, nor is it exemplary to use them all. Depending on the nature of your project, you can improve the performance of your project by selecting and using the ones that are useful to you.

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What are Models, Methods and Artifacts?

The PMBOK defines Models, Methods and Artifacts as follows.


A model is a thinking strategy to explain a process, framework, or phenomenon.


A method is the means for achieving an outcome, output, result, or project deliverable.


An artifact can be a template, document, output, or project deliverable.

It may be rephrased as a 'way of thinking', a 'way of doing things' or a 'useful thing', respectively. Based on an understanding of these meanings, the models, methods and deliverables will be introduced as commonly used and useful in project management. The details of the individual contents will be presented in more detail in a separate article, but here we will introduce the appearance as an entry point.

Frequently used Models (ideas)

Models help us to see complex reality as simple, simplified things and show us approaches to optimise our actual work. They help to explain what works in the real world and how it works. For example, it presents a simple way of thinking about and dealing with things that are complex and difficult to drop in the real world, such as what a leader should be, what to be careful about when communicating, how members think and are motivated, conflicts within a team, and so on.

There are models developed with project management in mind, as well as more general models. We will not go into detail here, but list as key words those introduced in the PMBOK. If necessary, you can study them in depth to get a useful 'way of thinking' for your project, and we will consider introducing them again in articles in the PM Handbook in the future, taking into account their ease of use and difficulty.

  • Situational Leadership Models:
    • Situational Leadership® II
    • OSCAR
  • Communication Models:
    • Cross-cultural communication
    • Effectiveness of communication channels
    • Gulf of execution and evaluation
  • Motivation Models:
    • Hygiene and motivation factors
    • Intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation
    • Theory of needs
    • Theory X, Theory Y, and Theory Z
  • Change Models:
    • Managing Change in Organizations
    • ADKAR®
    • 8-Step Process for Leading Change
    • Transition
  • Complexity Models:
    • Cynefin framework
    • Stacey matrix
  • Project Team Development Models:
    • Tuckman Ladder
    • Drexler/Sibbet Team Performance
  • Other Models:
    • Conflict
    • Negotiation
    • Planning
    • Process Groups
    • Salience

Commonly used Methods (ways of doing things)

Methods are the means by which results or outputs are obtained. The following are examples of methods commonly used to support project work. For example, it shows the 'ways' of doing various things that are usually done within project management, such as data collection, estimation, meetings, etc.

The book provides a number of examples of how to use the data collected, how to conduct meetings effectively, etc., and how to learn from the successes and failures of many project management projects that have been carried out in the past to make them more efficient. The following is a keyword list of those introduced in the PMBOK, which will not be discussed in detail here.

  • Data Gathering and Analysis Methods:
    • Alternatives analysis
    • Assumptions and constraints analysis
    • Benchmarking
    • Business justification analysis
      • Payback period
      • Internal rate of return
      • Return on investment
      • Net present value
      • Cost-benefit ratio
    • Check sheet
    • Cost of quality
    • Decision tree analysis
    • Earned value analysis
    • Expected monetary value
    • Forecasting
    • Influence diagram
    • Life cycle assessment
    • Make-or-buy analysis
    • Probability and impact matrix
    • Process analysis
    • Regression analysis
    • Root cause analysis
    • Sensitivity analysis
    • Simulation
    • Stakeholder analysis
    • SWOT analysis
    • Trend analysis
    • Value stream mapping
    • Variance analysis
    • What-if scenario analysis
  • Estimating Methods:
    • Affinity grouping
    • Analogous estimating
    • Function points
    • Multipoint estimating
    • Parametric estimating
    • Relative estimating
    • Single-point estimating
    • Story point estimation
    • Wideband Delphi
  • Meeting and Event Methods:
    • Backlog refinement
    • Bidder conference
    • Change control board
    • Daily standup
    • Iteration review
    • Iteration planning
    • Kickoff
    • Lessons learned
    • Planning
    • Project closeout
    • Project review
    • Release planning
    • Retrospective
    • Risk review
    • Status
    • Steering committee
  • Other Methods:
    • Impact mapping
    • Modeling
    • Net Promoter Score®
    • Prioritization schema
    • Timebox

Frequently used Artifacts (useful objects)

A creation is a template, a document or an output itself. In a project, many different things are created in the household of its activities. Some are main deliverables, others are by-products. Just as a blueprint is needed to develop a product, a list of materials to be procured, a document to prove procurement, etc., can be considered deliverables, e.g. a recipe, a shopping list, receipts, a role allocation list, a finished pastry, etc., if 2-3 people are baking. The details are not explained here.

The PMBOK does not go into detail here, but lists the key words that are introduced in the PMBOK. More details will be discussed in another article. By learning in depth from the documents that have been used in various projects and jobs in the past, while imagining your own role and the output required at the time, you will be able to achieve better results.

  • Strategy Artifacts:
    • Business case
    • Project brief
    • Project charter
    • Project vision statement
    • Roadmap
  • Log and Register Artifacts:
    • Assumption log
    • Backlog
    • Change log
    • Issue log
    • Lessons learned register
    • Risk-adjusted backlog
    • Risk register
    • Stakeholder register
  • Plan Artifacts:
    • Change control plan
    • Communications management plan
    • Cost management plan
    • Iteration plan
    • Procurement management plan
    • Project management plan
    • Quality management plan
    • Release plan
    • Requirements management plan
    • Resource management plan
    • Risk management plan
    • Scope management plan
    • Schedule management plan
    • Stakeholder engagement plan
    • Test plan
  • Hierarchy Chart Artifacts:
    • Organizational breakdown structure
    • Product breakdown structure
    • Resource breakdown structure
    • Risk breakdown structure
    • Work breakdown structure
  • Baseline Artifacts:
    • Budget
    • Milestone schedule
    • Performance measurement baseline
    • Project schedule
    • Scope baseline
  • Visual Data and Information Artifacts:
    • Affinity diagram
    • Burn chart
    • Cause-and-effect diagram
    • Cycle time chart
    • Cumulative flow diagram
    • Dashboard
    • Flow chart
    • Gantt chart
    • Histogram
    • Information radiator
    • Lead time chart
    • Prioritization matrix
    • Project schedule network diagram
    • Requirements traceability matrix
    • Responsibility assignment matrix
    • Scatter diagram
    • S-curve
    • Stakeholder engagement assessment matrix
    • Story map
    • Throughput chart
    • Use case
    • Value stream map
    • Velocity chart
  • Report Artifacts:
    • Quality report
    • Risk report
    • Status report
  • Agreements and Contracts:
    • Fixed-price
    • Cost-reimbursable
    • Time and materials
    • Indefinite time indefinite quantity (IDIQ)
    • Other agreements
  • Other Artifacts:
    • Activity list
    • Bid documents
    • Metrics
    • Project calendars
    • Requirements documentation
    • Project team charter
    • User story

Summary of Models, Methods and Artifacts

We have looked at models, methods and Artifacts that are useful in project management. PMBOK 7th Edition does not generally provide guidance on which models should be used for each aspect of a project, or which methods and deliverables should be created for each aspect of a project. This is one answer, I think, to the fact that in project management, working from a standard set of inputs and outputs in each step of a project does not necessarily lead to good results.

'Projects' are living organisms. They are difficult to control and full of uncertainty. It is not always possible to face them with knowledge and methods alone, but experience and failure time and time again is the key to success.

People are at the heart of any job. We want you to lead projects in which people can play an active role.

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