In the previous chapter, we looked at What is Project Management?. Project management is not about managing a project, per se, but about guiding the team toward what the project originally defines as its "goal" and achieving results.
So what exactly is the goal of a project?
Projects usually exist as part of a larger system, such as a company or organization. These organizations provide value to the people involved with the organization, such as the company's employees, the users of the services provided by the company, business partners, and the society surrounding the company. Many projects will have a "goal" based on the realization of this value.
What does it mean for a project to realize value?
Realizing these values is the raison d'être for many projects, and project teams work day in and day out to achieve them.
In order for a project to achieve better value, its relationship with other projects, its relationship with regular work, and its relationship with the organization to which it belongs are all important. All of these are called "value realization systems" in the PMBOK.
There are a wide variety of people and teams involved in value realization, including your project, other projects, upper management of the organization, and routine operations. A value realization system works best when information is shared correctly among these people and teams, and when the direction of the team is aligned with the direction of the organization as a whole.
The organization's strategy, desired results as an organization, and desired future must be shared correctly with project teams and operations teams, and information must flow in a circular fashion among each other so that project teams and teams that perform routine tasks provide status reports, feedback, and information for improvement based on these The following is a brief overview of the role of the organization in the project.
In order for the organization and the project to realize value, it is important for the organization to provide the right direction for the project. It normalizes the flow of information throughout the organization, clarifies issues, and makes critical business decisions. A project that belongs to an organization that is not functioning properly will have difficulty successfully delivering value.
It is "people" who drive the project. People play different roles to move the project forward. There is no way to ensure that the project will work if the roles are assigned in this way. However, it is very important to keep the overall work of the project clear and coordinated to ensure its success.
Some teams are best served by a centralized leader with clear support for the division of roles, while others are best served by a decentralized situation in which each team member is self-organized, independent, and self-managed. In some cases, a hybrid combination of the two may produce the best results.
Start the project with a good discussion and agreement on what form the team would like to take. It is then advisable to have a good understanding of the roles required for the project and what the project members are good at and not so good at, so that each member can fulfill his or her own role in the project.
Below are examples of the roles of the people who make up the project. The names and roles are examples and do not imply that the person is known as such in the organization. There may be cases where one person fulfills multiple roles, or where one role is fulfilled by multiple people.
Defines and coordinates the work so that the project moves toward the "goal. Decides what the project team will look like, makes plans, and controls the team. It is your job to oversee the entire project, including the health, safety, and emotional well-being of your team members. They may also negotiate with supervisors, management, and outside parties, and prepare the necessary documents to do so.
This is the person who correctly guides the direction of the value that the project is trying to create. They are the ones who can give their opinions on what exactly could be of value. For example, if you are creating a system to solve a problem, you need people who have the problem and will actually use the system. If you have a new idea, people who can articulate it. If you have something you want to create and you want to provide the funding for it, etc.
In the case of many projects, it is quite possible for a project to have a goal set at the start but still be unclear at the start. As the deliverables are gradually being finished, regular feedback from the guiding role becomes very important.
As each project member moves forward with his or her work, the facilitator guides the team to share a sense of teamwork and responsibility for the output. Leads consensus building, decision making and conflict resolution for the team as a whole. Coordinates meetings as needed, clarifies and facilitates meeting objectives.
Provides the knowledge and skills to actually do the work and realize the value of the project. This could be a programmer in product development or a carpenter in construction. In addition to performing assigned tasks, it is also important to create a two-way flow of information by sharing the status at the execution site and proposing ideas for improvement. They may be required to acquire new knowledge and skills, improve productivity, and train new members of the team.
These are members who do not actually perform the work, but have expertise that is needed for the project. They may provide advice and support to the project team on the direction of the work, or check and point out the accuracy of the work in the field.
Identifies the direction of the project's goals. Prioritizes the project with other projects, makes decisions and allocates resources throughout the organization. They identify problems and other issues that the project team cannot address alone and work to address them. People in these roles listen to the project team, maintain alignment between the organization's direction and the project's direction, and ensure that the project team is not isolated.
A project cannot exist in isolation. It consists of the internal environment of the organization in which the project exists and the external environment that surrounds it, which may or may not have a positive or negative impact on the project.
The internal environment includes the organization to which the project belongs, other projects, existing products, routine tasks, and combinations of these. The projects that have been done, their experience, and their deliverables. The company's facilities, culture, customs, employees and their skills and experience. The impact of these factors on the project can vary.
The external environment surrounds the internal environment. This too can have a positive or negative impact on the project. These include market conditions, laws and regulations, political climate, industry conditions, and physical conditions such as weather. The external environment is virtually uncontrollable. These influences require the project to be flexible in its direction.
The goal of the project was to realize value. In order to realize this value, the flow of information within the organization where the project takes place is first and foremost important. Information must be shared correctly, and the direction of the organization and the direction of the project must be consistent. Then, the "people" who move the project forward must recognize their roles and fulfill them with a sense of responsibility in order to move the work forward. In addition, since the project depends on the internal and external environment, the direction of the project must be flexible as it moves forward.
A "value realization system" is established when each person working on a job fulfills his or her role while receiving information and feedback in both directions. It is not just a matter of the supervisor giving tasks or the subordinates performing their assigned tasks, but when the entire organization is oriented in one direction and everyone in the organization finds meaning in the value and purpose of the work, real value is created, real teamwork and real work are born.